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But in the late 19th century a reformatory movement has emerged, leaded by the Crimean Tatar intellectuals – first of all, by Ismail Gaspirali (Gasprinski), a teacher, writer and journalist who was publishing the newspaper (Translator).
The state of the Crimean Tatars – the Crimean Khanate – existed from 1441 to 1783.
Traditions of the Crimean Tatars, their cultural and spiritual life, psychology, economy suffered the first colossal and devastating blow.
Russian landowners were driving Tatars from their land, seizing the territories, including the lands that were in possession of mosques.
In 18th century the Crimean Khanate became a "bargaining chip" in a fierce geopolitical game between Turkey and Russia, and at the end of the century it fell in the Russian zone of influence.
In 1783, as a result of Russia's victory over the Ottoman Empire, Crimea was first occupied and later annexed by Russia.
Catherine's annexation of Crimea turned into a disaster for the Crimean Tatars.
The Crimean Khanate completely lost the remnants of independence.Moreover, the Russians turned the free Crimean farmers into serfs.This caused hundreds of thousands of Crimean Tatars to flee and seek refuge in the Ottoman Empire.The annexation of Crimea was accompanied by numerous violations of the rights and freedoms of the local population.In fact, it was an occupation of a sovereign and independent state of the Crimean Tatars under the rule of Şahin Giray.This marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the Crimean Tatars, which they themselves called "the Black Century".