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To these we must add those formed by missionaries (especially Russians) from one of these Churches.
Illyricum (Macedonia and Greece) once belonged to the Roman patriarchate, and Greater Greece (Southern Italy and Sicily) was intermittently Byzantine.Their adherents everywhere belong of course to the Western portion.It is now possible to draw up the list of bodies that answer to our definition.To find a time when there was one Eastern Church we must go back to the centuries before the Council of Ephesus (431).Since that council there have been separate schismatical Eastern Churches whose number has grown steadily down to our own time.Whereas our Latin Fathers have never concerned them at all (most Eastern Christians have never even heard of our schoolmen or canonists), they still feel the influence of the Greek Fathers, their theology is still concerned about controversies carried on originally in Greek and settled by Greek synods. Further legislation formed two more at the expense of Antioch: Constantinople in 381 and Jerusalem in 451.
The literature of those that do not use Greek is formed on Greek models, is full of words carefully chosen or composed to correspond to some technical Greek distinction, then, in the broadest terms, is: that a Western Church is one originally dependent on Rome, whose traditions are Latin; an Eastern Church looks rather to Constantinople (either as a friend or an enemy) and inherits Greek ideas. In any case the Roman patriarchate was always enormously the greatest.Moreover, although all these Eastern-Rite Catholics of course agrees in the same Catholic Faith we profess, they are not organized as one body.Each branch keeps the rites (with in some cases modifications made at Rome for dogmatic reasons) of the corresponding schismatical body, and has an organization modelled on the same plan.Historically and archeologically, it is a secondary question.Each Catholic body has been formed from one of the schismatical ones; their organizations are comparatively late, dating in most cases from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.The point may be stated more scientifically by using the old division of the patriarchates. Western Christendom may be defined quite simply as the Roman patriarchate and all Churches that have broken away from it.